The Little Data Book on Information and Communication Technology 2007

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The United Nations statement on digital rights may serve as a platform for considering the connection between data protection and surveillance. This DDIP Report is organized in three chapters, featuring the interface of intellectual property with the issues of technology transfer, access to medicines and access to textbooks, respectively. What: Analysis of the diffusion of ICT in developing countries by using selected indicators. It also presents a review of policy options for developing countries. Who: For anyone interested in the subject of science and technology diffusion in developing countries How: Provides examples and data that could be used as a basis of a course, research, and student's work.

This index indicates the distribution of information and communication technology ICT around the world. A person in a high-income country is over 22 times more likely to be an Internet user than someone in a low-income country. Secure Internet servers, a rough indicator of electronic commerce, are over times more common in high-income than in low-income countries. In high-income countries, mobile phones are 29 times more prevalent and mainline penetration is 21 times that of low-income countries.

ICT (Information and Communication Technologies): Selected full-text books and articles

Relative to income, the cost of Internet access in a low-income country is times the cost of a comparable service in a high-income country. There are similar divides within individual countries. ICT is often non-existent in poor and rural areas of developing countries. Developing countries, in general, see technology transfer as part of the bargain in which they agreed to strengthened intellectual property protection under the TRIPS Agreement. Most notably, Article Furthermore, it points to the fact that many developed countries have never submitted a report, and among countries that did, submissions have largely been irregular.

In addition, a majority of the programmes and policies reported do not specifically target LDCs and a significant proportion of programmes for LDCs do not actually target technology transfer. The author highlights that country reports do not provide sufficiently detailed data to determine whether Article The policy brief includes a number of recommendations to improve the reporting system under Article The author suggests, for example, the use of a uniform reporting format that will be comparable across countries and time periods.

As the policy brief ultimately shows, significant work remains to be carried out in order to ensure an effective implementation of Article What: Over the past decade the emergence of electronic commerce has changed the economic environment substantially. It discusses what developing countries need to be aware of as they try to position their economies to take advantage of ICT and the Internet and to what extent ICT and the Internet affects the different sectors of their economies. The Report provides basic facts and figures about e-commerce.

Furthermore, it makes exemplary suggestions in which way developing countries can build the infrastructure, capacities and legal framework in order to create an environment enabling beneficial use of ICT and e-commerce. Who: Excellent reading for anyone interested in the development trends of e-commerce and its implications for developing countries.

How: Can be used as a background guide for classes and research on e-commerce and development. Various issues and proposals can be used to provoke discussions in class. What: This report examines in detail international trends related to e-commerce in It provides factual information and analysis in regard to a range of issues that influence the expansion of e-commerce in developing countries such as the Domain Name System or Gender Equality in regard to the use of e-commerce.

Furthermore, the report includes policy and business options available to developing countries and it outlines policy recommendations in order to maximize the contribution of e-commerce to social and economic development. Who: Teachers and students in international economics or international relations that want to focus on the impact of e-commerce and ICT for development.

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How: Each chapter and its bibliography can be used independently to deal with selected issues of e-commerce. The whole report can serve as an excellent background reading for classes on e-commerce and development. The data in the report can also be used for further scientific analysis and investigation. What: A presentation of the issues that developing countries have to take into account while designing their ICT development strategy, considering the Domain Name System as a prominent regulation framework of the digital economy.

ICT: Data Information Knowledge

Who: Since it is not too technical, this reading is suitable for both students and teachers interested in regulation frameworks for the Internet or in the relations between the Internet and development. How: Specialised course on domain names, or research works and case studies the document provides a bibliography that can be updated and a list of related forums on the Web. Some issues, such as the mission and functioning of the ICANN, provide helpful starting points for general or group discussions. What: Focusing on developing countries, the chapter mainly examines the accessibility of ICTs, the effect of E-commerce on the participation of women in the economy, the new employment opportunities for women.

Who: Especially teachers and researchers on gender, economic, labour or development issues. How: Useful material for a course on ICTs and economic and social development, with manifold examples or extra explanations in the form of boxes, figures or tables which may be used in presentation, exercises, discussions, etc. What: An explanation of how E-insurance works and how it has developed, as well as an analysis of the issues raised by the application of ICTs to the distribution of insurance services.

Who: Teachers or researchers on international insurance, e-finance. How: A complete introduction to E-insurance; textboxes also provide several valuable case studies that can lead to a more in-depth seminar on E-insurance. What: The report examines trends and previsions, as well as more specific issues related to E-commerce e-finance, online dispute resolution, etc. Who: Teachers in international affairs or international relations, interested in the impact of the Internet and ICTs on the economy and on development. How: Each chapter and its bibliographies may be used independently to cover specific aspects of E-commerce, or the whole document can be the basis of a course on E-commerce.

Data, graphs and tables can be useful to design presentations or tests document analysis, etc. What: A cross-sectoral analysis of how ICTs can foster the development of tourism in developing countries. It shows the link between the old and the new economy and the possibility that developing countries have to maximize benefits from the tourism industry. Who: Students or teachers involved in tourism or ICTs applied to development How: This document can be a good background paper for an introduction on e-tourism.

The annexes give excellent examples for case studies. This publication focuses on how e-commerce and mobile telephony have transformed the lives of many people in developing countries. It examines different ways of using e-commerce, and looks at specific sectors where Small and Medium Entreprises tap into important market information for their business. Who: Anyone interested in ICTs or microeconomics especially researchers who will find the data very useful. How: A valuable source of information or update for any course on ICTs, especially if it focuses on development and SMEs; also a possible basis for discussion in particular the conclusion part after an introductory course on the subject.

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This study investigates the patterns and trends of e-commerce activities as well as their impact on labour productivity growth in a group of European countries. At hand for the exercise is a unique panel of micro-aggregated firm-level data for 14 European countries spanning over the years to The empirical approach is twofold: A static specification and a dynamic panel data model. The former is a difference specification estimated by OLS and the latter uses system GMM to account for endogeneity of e-commerce activities.

This study adds to the literature by presenting patterns of and first insights into the productivity effects of e-commerce activities. What: The paper discusses policy issues that e-commerce raises for developing countries in the WTO context. With regard to the WTO rules, benefit developing countries would benefit if e-commerce is classified as trade in services with GATS discipline applied to it and Internet transactions as cross-border trade.

Developing countries that have the capacity to export skilled services through Internet would gain if they negotiate market access with developed countries in the future WTO negotiations' in terms of liberalization of sectors in which they have a comparative advantage. Who: Useful for anyone teaching electronic commerce and WTO. How: A background reading on e-commerce and negotiations with WTO. What: A presentation of the emergence of e-finance as well as an analysis of the experience in e-finance and of specific initiatives aiming at the development of Small and Medium Enterprises SMEs.

The final part is an overview of coming challenges in the field. Who: People who teach or research on international finance, on the new economy or on SMEs How: An introductory course to e-finance and development, or case studies based on the experiences mentioned in part 2 and on the list of Websites provided. What: This paper provides an insight into selected developments and issues in ICT and e-commerce.

Key areas for future activities in order to assist developing countries to increase their participation in e-commerce and ICT are outlined. Who: For anyone interested in an overview on the role and the implications of ICT and e-commerce for development. How: Can be used as a background reading on the effects of e-commerce and ICT for development. What: This document introduces some of the crucial issues relating to the wider use of electronic means of communication in international trade and transport services.

It covers the impact of e-commerce on both the organization of transport and the current paper-based legal framework of international trade transactions. It highlights how e-commerce is already transforming relationships between transport service providers and users by making access to information more readily available to all. It also deals with the legal and documentary aspects, reviews the role of transport documents, particularly that of the negotiable bill of lading, in the functioning of international trade transactions.

What: This study focuses on the discussion of legal issues that are relevant to electronic commerce on an international level. It gives an overview on international developments that aim at the facilitation of e-commerce and outlines legal issues which are considered to constitute obstacles in the cross-border use of e-commerce.

Possible solutions to these obstacles from already existing legal documents are discussed. The study includes a number of recommendations for governments and commercial parties with regard to creating favourable frameworks for electronic commerce. Who: Useful for anyone who deals with the legal framework for international electronic commerce and wishes to get detailed information on existing legal provisions. How: Can serve as starting point to examine the progress made within the last years in the international legal framework on ICT. What: A synthetic overview of how developing countries can include the ICT dimension in their development strategies and create an enabling environment, so that the Internet and ICTs can effectively lead to economic and social development.

Includes best practices and helpful instances of national e-strategies. Who: Anyone interested in the role of governments in fostering development through ICTs especially e-commerce How: Case studies, discussions or simulations based on the national policies outlined in the paper. It is up to the Member States to deliver on these obligations, in the framework of EU rules …. This paper is the first study to empirically analyze green patent fast-tracking programmes and to examine whether these programmes may help the diffusion of green technologies.

After pointing out the main differences among the approaches taken by different countries, the paper presents several key findings, such as there is a clear demand for fast-tracking procedures, climate change-related technologies represent the vast majority of patents in the fast-tracking programmes. This paper presents observations and trends that have occurred in the key areas identified by the Task Force on Financial Mechanisms TFFM and Tunis Agenda, in terms of development of ICT opportunities and financing, and then identifies key challenges and opportunities going forward, for addressing continuing gaps and new conditions in ICT development policy and financing.

What: The paper gives basic definitions, discusses the "free and open source software" FOSS phenomenon from a policy perspective, develops a brief discussion of possible opportunities for deployment in public and commercial activities, clarifies the intellectual property context of FOSS and provides an overview of development issues where FOSS has had a conceptual impact, besides practical use and deployment. This study explores the ways in which tools and methodologies used to collect, manage and analyse data related to the Earth, can support development. Chapter 6 sets out challenges to implementation.

Chapter 7 provides policy recommendations. TNCs play a key role but public sector research institutions, universities and domestic enterprises should not be neglected. The impact as well as the benefits, costs and risks and the enabling policies are reviewed. Finally, it offers a few issues for discussion. This paper could also provide a basis for discussion of the implications of these more differentiated and dynamic strategic orientations in TNCs for host countries in which they operate, with particular emphasis on countries at early stages of competitiveness development and on economies in transition.

What: The presentation points out the links between technology, innovation and knowledge creation. It then analyses the process of internationalization of innovation and the reasons for technology transfer - both between countries and among companies. It outlines the political, economic and technological factors, which influence the globalization of innovation and knowledge. Who: A very good presentation that can be used by a lecturer on a course on globalization of innovation.

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What: This publication aims to elaborate key issues related to the trends towards globalization of research and development and their implications for developing countries: What is its development potential? How can the establishment of research and development abroad affect the transfer of technology — one of the main potential benefits from foreign direct investment?

What types of research and development are the most desirable for development? What benefits and costs are involved and, how can policies in home and host countries influence the allocation of such activities and their economic impact? The role of adequate policies forms the last part of the presentation. The first part discusses the need for regional harmonization and the challenges faced with regard to the implementation of cyberlaws in the EAC region.

The second gives a detailed account of the status of cyberlaws in each country. It is hoped that the work of the EAC Task Force on Cyberlaws and this study offer some useful lessons and tools for other countries and regions engaging in cyberlaw reforms. What: This note calls on developing countries to improve their ICT usage in transport and customs, in order to keep pace with globalization, liberalization, and the global exigencies for supply chain security.

The Little Data Book on Information and Communication Technology 2007

All in all, the paper advises developing countries to adopt the following measures: capacity building, IT infrastructure development, a regulatory reform, and a cooperative framework. How: An informative reading for courses on trade facilitation. Who: Anyone interested in the use of ICT for trade facilitation. Who: Relevant for anyone studying or teaching FDI and development, and its impact on processes of globalization. How: Background reading for courses on FDI, globalization.

Also offers a lot of relevant reference materials. SPECA was launched in to strengthen subregional cooperation in Central Asia and its integration into the world economy. The guide is intended for use as a reference manual by ICT policymakers in countries with economies in transition.

The content is designed to respond to the needs of SPECA member countries, incorporating feedback received during the series of capacity-building events conducted in and What: The Report analyses the current and potential contribution of information technology to knowledge creation and diffusion.

It explores how ICTs help generate innovations that improve the livelihoods of the poor and support enterprise competitiveness. The report examines how ICTs affect productivity and growth and reflects on the need for a development-oriented approach to intellectual property rights in order to enable effective access to technology. ICT has also given rise to new models for sharing knowledge and collective production of ideas and innovations, known as "open access" models, which often bypass the incentive system provided by intellectual property rights.

How: The Report presents a current cross-section of themes and analysis that aim to inform and enable governments to understand the policy challenges and opportunities. The analysis identifies important areas of concern and best practices necessary for the formulation of targeted policy decisions to support and accelerate ICT diffusion.

While fixed telephone subscriptions are now in slight decline, mobile and Internet use continues to expand rapidly in most countries and regions. At the same time, there is a widening gap between high-income and low-income countries in broadband connectivity.

Broadband penetration is now eight times higher in developed than in developing countries. The report explores policy options for countries seeking to improve broadband connectivity. Drawing on unique data, it examines how ICT use differs both between and within countries, highlighting the rural-urban divide as well as that between large and small companies. The report recommends that governments in developing countries give more attention to ICT uptake and use by small- and medium-sized enterprises SMEs , as they are lagging behind larger firms.

And it discusses those aspects of ICT where government intervention can make a difference. A third chapter is devoted to the impact of the financial crisis on ICT trade. While a growing share of exports of ICT goods and services is accounted for by developing economies, especially in Asia, the crisis has affected goods and services quite differently. ICT goods are among the categories of trade most negatively affected by the recession, while IT and ICT-related services appear to be among the most resilient. As one of few annual reports that monitor global trends related to information and communication technologies ICTs from a development perspective, the Report is a valuable reference source for policymakers in developing countries.

In the edition, special attention is given to the potential impact of ICTs in enterprises for reducing poverty and improving livelihoods. The evidence presented in this Report suggests that more attention should be given by policymakers and other stakeholders to opportunities in this area.

The Report shows that the potential of leveraging information and communication technologies ICTs to develop the private sector is far from fully exploited. It finds that many national and donor strategies related to PSD currently fail to take adequate account of the ICT potential, which has greatly expanded thanks to changes in the global ICT landscape. The Report then makes policy recommendations on how to remedy this situation. The Information Economy Report finds that, because software is increasingly permeating societies at all levels of development and activity, it is becoming more important for countries to develop the technological capabilities needed to adopt and adapt existing software solutions, and eventually to innovate.

Software and service activities represent an opportunity for developing countries, thanks to the low capital entry requirements, the sector's high-value, high-growth nature and knowledge-rich profile. The Report introduces the concept of the national software system, and the importance of the role of governments, whose policies should nurture software capabilities and the system as a whole. The Information Economy Report marks the first time the United Nations is examining the economic potential of cloud computing for low- and middle-income countries, where rates of adoption are currently low.

With governments, businesses and other organizations in the developing world considering whether to migrate some or all of their data and activities to the cloud, this publication is especially timely. The edition of the Information Economy Report examines electronic commerce, and explores how information and communication technologies can be harnessed to support economic growth and sustainable development.

The report demonstrates how some of the greatest dynamism in electronic commerce can be found in developing countries, but that potential is far from fully realized. It examines opportunities and challenges faced by enterprises in developing countries that wish to access and use e-commerce. Finally, the report highlights the latest market trends, benchmarks country performances with the UNCTAD E-commerce Index, reviews examples of e-commerce in rural areas and low-income countries, addresses relevant legal issues and provides policy recommendations.

The analysis contained in the Information Economy Report Digitalization, Trade and Development proposes ways in which the international community can reduce inequality, enable the benefits of digitalization to reach all people and ensure that no one is left behind by the evolving digital economy. This joint publication 'Assessing Regional Integration in Africa VII' reviews the relationship between regional integration, innovation and competitiveness.

It argues that by knitting together networks of institutions, people and markets a loose connection between two or more nations is bound to facilitate innovation and related creative activities. The report presents chapters on innovation and global intellectual property regulations and science, technology and innovation policies, along with case studies from India and the Southeast Asian nations. What: The debate about the application of biotechnology to agriculture is one of the most vocal and passionate in recent years.

This paper analyses different legal frameworks on agro-biotechnology in selected developed and developing countries. It outlines the complexity of the issue especially for developing countries who have to reconcile trade interests with food safety, environmental protection and international obligations. Who: Students, teachers or researchers interested in the effects of biotechnology on agriculture and trade in developing countries. How: As a key reading in any course dealing with trade and the environment. This study provides an overview of key issues relating to broadband ICTs in the context of international objectives for socioeconomic development.

The discussion summarizes recent research, policy developments and practices associated with broadband ICTs around the world and offers a set of frameworks for considering and developing new public and private initiatives to promote broadband development. Paper that discusses the role of foreign direct investment in the transfer of technology and policy options for developing countries. An overview of important trends affecting the local pharmaceutical production in developing countries, intended as a guide for policymakers, investment promotion agencies and investment negotiators in their efforts to encourage the expansion of local pharmaceutical production capacity.

What: This paper reviews several key issues surrounding modern gene technology and its application in the areas of crop agriculture and medicine, and presents the potential benefits and challenges associated with them. In particular, it addresses and provides information on biotechnology, with particular attention to genetically modified crops, health and intellectual property rights. It concludes with the major implications for policy makers.

Who: Useful for teachers and students studying gene technology and its application on agriculture and medicine. How: Can be used as a background reading for courses on biotechnology. Asimismo, pueden servir para incrementar la productividad de las empresas. What: The LDC report looks at the role of technology, knowledge and innovation for creating employment and stimulating economic growth in Least Developed Countries. The report begins by examining the potential of various international market linkages, e. The report goes on to analyse How national policies could promote technological learning and innovation, and concludes that science and technology policies and targets are insufficiently integrated in national development strategies and Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers PRSPs.

The report recommends that economic aid should be targeted more specifically at the knowledge capacities of developing countries and emphasizes the use of more appropriate Intellectual Property regimes to stimulate innovation. Migration of persons possessing specific skills and knowledge represents another means of international knowledge and technology transfer that affects the knowledge accumulation in developing countries.

The report highlights several policies that could reverse the 'brain drain' trend and allow developing countries to take advantage of a 'brain gain'. Such policy recommendations include mechanisms to facilitate temporary rather than permanent migration; the retention of skilled persons; and assistance to promote return migration. How: Useful for any course dealing with the issue of innovation and knowledge for low-income countries. Who: Researchers and lecturers dealing with LDC issues or technology, knowledge and innovation in a low-income country context.

The digital revolution, like all technological revolutions that already transformed several times the economic and social environment is of actuality in our societies were they either developed or under-developed. Besides it could not let us indifferent, so this study were carried, and where we collected a number of information which allowed us to define what is an information market, E-commerce, and all concepts around the question as: the E - economy, the E - management, the new economy etc.

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So, in the goal to discern the level of information society and ICT impact on the degree of the E — Commerce uses, at the level of Cameroon, we proceeded by the primary and secondary data analysis. This permitted us to understand that the Cameroonian internet user was not sensitized enough about the E - Commerce and that the whole logistics as well as the infrastructure that goes with, was not yet enough developed.

To this effect, a certain number of measures or actions have been suggested, as: more of sensitization, reduction of the costs of Internet, development of the infrastructures of telecommunications, etc. It is whereas the Cameroonian enterprises of all sizes as well as the consumers will be able to experiment in their way to manage their resources the kindness of the E — Commerce.

Like the rest of this series on little data books, it is organized by regional and income group data.

It provides data on access to information and communication technologies ICTs which have seen tremendous growth. The usage of the internet, mobile phones will continue rising. The number of individuals using the Internet will reach an estimated 2. This publication is important because investment in information and communication technologies is associated with economic benefits as higher productivity, lower costs, new economic opportunities, job creation, innovation, and increased trade. This publication provides comparable statistics on the sector for and across a range of indicators, enabling readers to readily compare economies.

Such indicators cover the economic and social context structure of the information and communication technology sector, sector efficiency and capacity, and sector performance related to access, usage, quality, affordability, trade, and applications. This series of case studies examine the transfer of technology and local production of pharmaceuticals in different regions, highlighting different characteristics such as firm structure, the means by which local producers obtained and developed the technological capacity to produce medicines, and the types of product handled.

This is the second edition of the Manual for the Production of Statistics on the Information Economy. The Manual is a tool for staff of national statistical organizations responsible for measuring the information economy. It is intended to guide statisticians from developing countries in all steps involved in the production and dissemination of business ICT statistics.

This second edition of the Manual is a valuable tool in our common efforts towards enhancing the availability of internationally comparable indicators of the information economy. This paper explores why measuring the impacts of information and communication technology ICT is important for development — and why it is statistically challenging. Measuring impacts in any field is difficult, but for ICT there are added complications because of its diversity and rapidly changing nature.

A number of impact areas are identified in section 1, and their relationships explored, in the context of their place in the social, economic and environmental realms. This report is a survey of mobile money services across East African Community EAC , providing an analysis and comparison between the different platforms currently on offer. Section B examines the different mobile money service offerings along with their associated fees. Section C looks at some salient features of the services currently on offer across EAC and identifies some usability issues such as access channels, security, registration and transaction limits, agent networks and consumer awareness and support.

Section D provides an analysis of regulatory issues structured around the different functions embedded in a mobile money service. The world's technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks was exabytes of optimally compressed information in , optimally compressed exabytes in , 1. The top 30 countries in the rankings include most high-income countries where quality of life is higher than average, which includes countries from Europe and other regions such as "Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Japan, Macao China , New Zealand, Singapore and the United States; almost all countries surveyed improved their IDI ranking this year.

It also emphasized a multi-stakeholder approach to achieve these goals, using all stakeholders including civil society and the private sector, in addition to governments. To help anchor and expand ICT to every habitable part of the world, " is the deadline for achievements of the UN Millennium Development Goals MDGs , which global leaders agreed upon in the year Information and Communication Technology can contribute to universal access to education, equity in education, the delivery of quality learning and teaching, teachers' professional development and more efficient education management, governance and administration.

Access, inclusion and quality are among the main challenges they can address. Despite the power of computers to enhance and reform teaching and learning practices, improper implementation is a widespread issue beyond the reach of increased funding and technological advances with little evidence that teachers and tutors are properly integrating ICT into everyday learning. Intrinsic barriers such as a belief in more traditional teaching practices and individual attitudes towards computers in education as well as the teachers own comfort with computers and their ability to use them all as result in varying effectiveness in the integration of ICT in the classroom.

There is some evidence that, to be effective in education, ICT must be fully integrated into the pedagogy. Specifically, when teaching literacy and math, using ICT in combination with Writing to Learn [27] [28] produces better results than traditional methods alone or ICT alone. Beginning with television and radio, it extended the reach of education from the classroom to the living room, and to geographical areas that had been beyond the reach of the traditional classroom. As technology evolved and became more widely used, efforts in Sub-Saharan Africa were also expanded.

In the s a massive effort to push computer hardware and software into schools was undertaken, with the goal of familiarizing both students and teachers with computers in the classroom. The inclusion of ICT in the classroom, often referred to as M-Learning , has expanded the reach of educators and improved their ability to track student progress in Sub-Saharan Africa.

In particular, the mobile phone has been most important in this effort. Mobile phone use is widespread, and mobile networks cover a wider area than internet networks in the region. The devices are familiar to student, teacher, and parent, and allow increased communication and access to educational materials. In addition to benefits for students, M-learning also offers the opportunity for better teacher training, which lends to a more consistent curriculum across the educational service area.

Implementation is not without its challenges. Overall, Once in school, students also face barriers to quality education, such as teacher competency, training and preparedness, access to educational materials, and lack of information management. The most recent authoritative data, released in , shows "that Internet use continues to grow steadily, at 6. However, hurdles are still large. This also includes the availability of telephone lines, particularly the availability of cellular coverage, and other forms of electronic transmission of data.

The latest "Measuring the Information Society Report" cautiously stated that the increase in the aforementioned cellular data coverage is ostensible, as "many users have multiple subscriptions, with global growth figures sometimes translating into little real improvement in the level of connectivity of those at the very bottom of the pyramid; an estimated million people worldwide live in places which are still out of reach of mobile cellular service. Favorably, the gap between the access to the Internet and mobile coverage has decreased substantially in the last fifteen years, in which " [was] the deadline for achievements of the UN Millennium Development Goals MDGs , which global leaders agreed upon in the year , and the new data show ICT progress and highlight remaining gaps.

With desktops soon becoming part of a bygone era, and laptops becoming the preferred method of computing, ICT continues to insinuate and alter itself in the ever-changing globe. Information communication technologies play a role in facilitating accelerated pluralism in new social movements today.

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The internet according to Bruce Bimber is "accelerating the process of issue group formation and action" [34] and coined the term accelerated pluralism to explain this new phenomena. ICTs are tools for "enabling social movement leaders and empowering dictators" [35] in effect promoting societal change. ICTs can be used to garner grassroots support for a cause due to the internet allowing for political discourse and direct interventions with state policy [36] as well as change the way complaints from the populace are handled by governments.

Furthermore, ICTs in a household are associated with women rejecting justifications for intimate partner violence. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cloud computing Cognitive infocommunications DICOM Digital divide Example of Information and communication technologies for education Global e-Schools and Communities Initiative Hospital information system Infocommunications Information Age Information and communication technologies for environmental sustainability Market information systems Mobile Web Picture archiving and communication system 21st century skills World Information Technology and Services Alliance.

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