Studies of the Constitution of Steel
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In these processes pig iron was refined fined in a finery forge to produce bar iron , which was then used in steel-making. The production of steel by the cementation process was described in a treatise published in Prague in and was in use in Nuremberg from A similar process for case hardening armor and files was described in a book published in Naples in The process was introduced to England in about and used to produce such steel by Sir Basil Brooke at Coalbrookdale during the s.
The raw material for this process were bars of iron. During the 17th century it was realized that the best steel came from oregrounds iron of a region north of Stockholm , Sweden. This was still the usual raw material source in the 19th century, almost as long as the process was used.
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Crucible steel is steel that has been melted in a crucible rather than having been forged , with the result that it is more homogeneous. Most previous furnaces could not reach high enough temperatures to melt the steel. The early modern crucible steel industry resulted from the invention of Benjamin Huntsman in the s.
Blister steel made as above was melted in a crucible or in a furnace, and cast usually into ingots. The modern era in steelmaking began with the introduction of Henry Bessemer 's Bessemer process in , the raw material for which was pig iron. Another 19th-century steelmaking process was the Siemens-Martin process , which complemented the Bessemer process.
These methods of steel production were rendered obsolete by the Linz-Donawitz process of basic oxygen steelmaking BOS , developed in ,  and other oxygen steel making methods. Basic oxygen steelmaking is superior to previous steelmaking methods because the oxygen pumped into the furnace limited impurities, primarily nitrogen, that previously had entered from the air used,  and because, with respect to the open hearth process, the same quantity of steel from a BOS process is manufactured in one-twelfth the time.
They can also be used for converting pig iron to steel, but they use a lot of electrical energy about kWh per metric ton , and are thus generally only economical when there is a plentiful supply of cheap electricity. The steel industry is often considered an indicator of economic progress, because of the critical role played by steel in infrastructural and overall economic development. By , the number of steelworkers fell to , The economic boom in China and India caused a massive increase in the demand for steel.
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Since , several Indian  and Chinese steel firms have risen to prominence, [ according to whom? As of , though, ArcelorMittal is the world's largest steel producer. In , steel began trading as a commodity on the London Metal Exchange. At the end of , the steel industry faced a sharp downturn that led to many cut-backs. Modern steels are made with varying combinations of alloy metals to fulfill many purposes. This material is both strong and ductile so that vehicle structures can maintain their current safety levels while using less material.
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There are several commercially available grades of AHSS, such as dual-phase steel , which is heat treated to contain both a ferritic and martensitic microstructure to produce a formable, high strength steel. By applying strain, the austenite undergoes a phase transition to martensite without the addition of heat.
Carbon Steels are often galvanized , through hot-dip or electroplating in zinc for protection against rust. Some stainless steels, such as the ferritic stainless steels are magnetic , while others, such as the austenitic , are nonmagnetic. Some more modern steels include tool steels , which are alloyed with large amounts of tungsten and cobalt or other elements to maximize solution hardening. This also allows the use of precipitation hardening and improves the alloy's temperature resistance.
Other special-purpose alloys include weathering steels such as Cor-ten, which weather by acquiring a stable, rusted surface, and so can be used un-painted. This creates a very strong but still malleable steel. Eglin steel uses a combination of over a dozen different elements in varying amounts to create a relatively low-cost steel for use in bunker buster weapons. Examples include tank tracks , bulldozer blade edges and cutting blades on the jaws of life.
Most of the more commonly used steel alloys are categorized into various grades by standards organizations. For example, the Society of Automotive Engineers has a series of grades defining many types of steel. Iron and steel are used widely in the construction of roads, railways, other infrastructure, appliances, and buildings. Most large modern structures, such as stadiums and skyscrapers, bridges, and airports, are supported by a steel skeleton.
Even those with a concrete structure employ steel for reinforcing. In addition, it sees widespread use in major appliances and cars. Despite growth in usage of aluminium , it is still the main material for car bodies. Steel is used in a variety of other construction materials, such as bolts, nails , and screws and other household products and cooking utensils. Other common applications include shipbuilding , pipelines , mining , offshore construction , aerospace , white goods e.
Before the introduction of the Bessemer process and other modern production techniques, steel was expensive and was only used where no cheaper alternative existed, particularly for the cutting edge of knives , razors , swords , and other items where a hard, sharp edge was needed. It was also used for springs , including those used in clocks and watches. With the advent of speedier and thriftier production methods, steel has become easier to obtain and much cheaper. It has replaced wrought iron for a multitude of purposes.
However, the availability of plastics in the latter part of the 20th century allowed these materials to replace steel in some applications due to their lower fabrication cost and weight. Steel manufactured after World War II became contaminated with radionuclides by nuclear weapons testing. Low-background steel, steel manufactured prior to , is used for certain radiation-sensitive applications such as Geiger counters and radiation shielding.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Steel disambiguation. For other uses, see Steel worker disambiguation. Main article: Heat treating. Main article: Steelmaking. See also: List of countries by steel production. Main articles: History of ferrous metallurgy and History of the steel industry — Main articles: Wootz steel and Damascus steel. Main articles: Blister steel and Crucible steel. See also: History of the steel industry — , Global steel industry trends , Steel production by country , and List of steel producers.
Main article: Ferrous metal recycling. See also: Steel grades. Main article: Weathering steel. Main article: Stainless steel. Main article: Low-background steel. Online Etymology Dictionary. Engineering Materials 2 with corrections ed. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Metallurgical Consultants. Archived from the original on Retrieved Iron and Steel Production.
The Minerva Group, Inc. Anatolian Archaeological Studies. Tokyo: Japanese Institute of Anatolian Archaeology. The Hindu. Chennai, India. Leiden: E. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. A History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The New York Times. National Institute of Advanced Studies. Archived from the original PDF on Papers from the Institute of Archaeology. Retrieved 31 October Volume 2". Bibcode : Natur.
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Notes on prehistoric and early iron in the Old World. Simon and Schuster. Retrieved 4 March Nature News. Historical Metallurgy. Journal of Economic History. The Metals Society, London. Journal of Industrial History. History of the Manufacture of Iron in All Ages. The Globe and Mail Inc. Fruehan ed. United States Government Printing Office. Cristian Science Monitor.
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Archived from the original on December 23, Tampere University of Technology. American Institute of Steel Construction Inc. Retrieved on ASTM International. Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Architecture. Kumar N. DIBE will publish full research papers, review papers and short communications. The scope of Developments in the Built Environment is broad and therefore inclusive, publishing research in civil engineering and the built environment.
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