Structural and Demographic Business Statistics 2009

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Completed Fertility Rate The number of children born per woman to a cohort of women by the end of their childbearing years. Consensual Union Cohabitation by an unmarried couple for an extended period of time. Although such unions may be quite stable, they are not regarded as legal marriages in official statistics. Contraceptive Prevalence Percentage of couples currently using a contraceptive method. Modern methods comprise clinic and supply methods, including the pill, injectable, implant, IUD, condom, and sterilization. Death Rate or crude death rate The number of deaths per 1, population in a given year.

Demographic Transition The historical shift of birth and death rates from high to low levels in a population. The mortality decline usually precedes the fertility decline, resulting in rapid population growth during the transition period. Demography The scientific study of human populations, including their sizes, compositions, distributions, densities, growth, and other characteristics, as well as the causes and consequences of changes in these factors.

Annual Business Statistics Program / ESANE

For instance, a child dependency ratio of 0. Divorce Rate or crude divorce rate The number of divorces per 1, population in a given year. Doubling Time The number of years required for the population of an area to double its present size, given the current rate of population growth. Economic Infrastructure Economic infrastructure includes the internal facilities of a country that make business and financial activity possible, such as communication, transportation, and distribution networks; financial institutions and markets; and energy supply systems.

Economic Security The condition of having stable income or other resources to support a standard of living now and in the foreseeable future. Emigration The process of leaving one country to take up permanent or semipermanent residence in another. Emigration Rate The number of emigrants departing an area of origin per 1, population in that area of origin in a given year.

Ethnicity The cultural practices, language, cuisine, and traditions — not biological or physical differences — used to distinguish groups of people.

Demographic Data Collection: Creating Accountability through Measurement

Family Usually two or more persons living together and related by birth, marriage, or adoption. Families may consist of siblings or other relatives as well as married couples and any children they have. Family Planning The conscious effort of couples to regulate the number and spacing of births through artificial and natural methods of contraception.

Family planning connotes conception control to avoid pregnancy and abortion, but it also includes efforts of couples to induce pregnancy. Fertility The actual reproductive performance of an individual, a couple, a group, or a population. See general fertility rate. Gender refers to the economic, social, political, and cultural attributes, constraints and opportunities associated with being a woman or a man.

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The social definitions of what it means to be a woman or a man vary among cultures and change over time. Gender is a sociocultural expression of particular characteristics and roles that are associated with certain groups of people with reference to their sex and sexuality. Gender Equity is the process of being fair to women and men.


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To ensure fairness, measures must be taken to compensate for historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from operating on a level playing field. Gender Equality is the state or condition that affords women and men equal enjoyment of human rights, socially valued goods, opportunities, and resources.

General Fertility Rate The number of live births per 1, women ages or years in a given year. Gross National Income GNI GNI formerly GNP is the sum of value added by all resident producers plus any product taxes less subsidies not included in the valuation of output plus net receipts of primary income compensation of employees and property income from abroad. Data are in current U. GNI, calculated in national currency, is usually converted to U. Gross Reproduction Rate GRR The average number of daughters that would be born alive to a woman or group of women during her lifetime if she passed through her childbearing years conforming to the age-specific fertility rates of a given year.

See also net reproduction rate and total fertility rate. Growth Rate The number of people added to or subtracted from a population in a year due to natural increase and net migration expressed as a percentage of the population at the beginning of the time period. High Child Dependency High fertility and relatively high mortality contribute to a large young population and a small old-age population.

High-risk pregnancies Pregnancies occurring under the following conditions: too closely spaces, too frequent, mother too young or too old, or accompanied by such high-risk factors as high blood pressure or diabetes. Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV Retrovirus that infects cells of the immune system, destroying or impairing their function. As the infection progresses, the immune system becomes weaker, and the person becomes more susceptible to infections.

HIV is transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse, transfusion of contaminated blood, sharing of contaminated needles, and between a mother and her infant during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. Immigration The process of entering one country from another to take up permanent or semipermanent residence. Immigration Rate The number of immigrants arriving at a destination per 1, population at that destination in a given year.

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Incidence Rate The number of persons contracting a disease per 1, population at risk, for a given period of time. Infant Mortality Rate The number of deaths of infants under age 1 per 1, live births in a given year. In-migration The process of entering one administrative subdivision of a country such as a province or state from another subdivision to take up residence. Most commonly cited as life expectancy at birth. Life Span The maximum age that human beings could reach under optimum conditions. Life Table A tabular display of life expectancy and the probability of dying at each age or age group for a given population, according to the age-specific death rates prevailing at that time.

Malthus, Thomas R. See neo-Malthusian. Marital Fertility Rate Number of live births to married women per 1, married women ages or in a given year. Marriage Rate or crude marriage rate The number of marriages per 1, population in a given year. Maternal Mortality Ratio The number of women who die as a result of pregnancy and childbirth complications per , live births in a given year. Median Age The age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older. Megalopolis A term denoting an interconnected group of cities and connecting urbanized bands.

Metropolitan Area A large concentration of population, usually an area with , or more people. The area typically includes an important city with 50, or more inhabitants and the administrative areas bordering the city that are socially and economically integrated with it. Migration The movement of people across a specified boundary for the purpose of establishing a new or semipermanent residence.

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Divided into international migration migration between countries and internal migration migration within a country. The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September , commits world leaders to combat poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women. The MDGs are derived from this declaration, and all have specific targets and indicators.

Moderate Child Dependency Declining fertility lowers child dependency to a moderate level; relatively high mortality keeps old-age dependency low. Natural Increase or Decrease The surplus or deficit of births over deaths in a population in a given time period. Neo-Malthusian An advocate of restricting population growth through the use of birth control. Thomas Malthus himself did not advocate birth control as a remedy for rapid population growth. Neonatal Mortality Rate The number of deaths to infants under 28 days of age in a given year per 1, live births in that year.


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  • Net Migration The estimated rate of net migration immigration minus emigration per 1, population. For some countries, data are derived as a residual from estimated birth, death, and population growth rates. Net Reproduction Rate NRR The average number of daughters that would be born to a woman or a group of women if she passed through her lifetime conforming to the age-specific fertility and mortality rates of a given year.

    This rate is similar to the gross reproduction rate but takes into account that some women will die before completing their childbearing years. An NRR of one means that each generation of mothers is having exactly enough daughters to replace itself in the population. See also total fertility rate and replacement-level fertility. Nuptiality The frequency, characteristics, and dissolution of marriages in a population.

    Out-migration The process of leaving one subdivision of a country to take up residence in another. Perinatal Mortality Rate The number of fetal deaths after 28 weeks of pregnancy late fetal deaths plus the number of deaths to infants under 7 days of age per 1, live births. Period Analysis Observation of a population at a specific period of time. Most rates are derived from period data and therefore are period rates. Compare to cohort analysis.

    Population Control A broad concept that addresses the relationship between fertility, mortality, and migration, but is most commonly used to refer to efforts to slow population growth through action to lower fertility. It should not be confused with family planning. See also family planning. Population Density Population per unit of land area; for example, people per square mile or people per square kilometer of arable land.

    It provides estimates of GDP and its components in their three approaches supply, demand and income , both in current prices and in terms of volume in the case of the income approach, only at current prices , as well as employment persons, jobs, full-time equivalent jobs and hours worked and national income.

    In addition, all estimates are presented both as non-adjusted and adjusted for seasonal and calendar effects. Variables studied: GDP and its components such as gross value added and taxes and subsidies on products supply-side approach , final consumption expenditure, gross fixed capital formation, changes in stocks and acquisitions less disposals of valuables, exports and imports of goods and services demand-side approach , compensation of employees, wages and salaries, employer's social contributions, gross operating surplus and gross mixed income and other taxes and subsidies on production and imports income-side approach , persons, jobs, full-time equivalent jobs and hours worked, property income, current transfers, gross national income and gross national disposable income.

    Conducted since: Available since in the current accounting series since in previous series. Scope for which the results are published: national. Source: INE Frequency: quarterly. ISO Code: Operation: Quarterly non-financial accounts for the institutional sectors Objective: to describe the behavioural relations between the institutional units that comprise the national economy households and non-profit institutions serving households , non-financial corporate enterprises, financial institutions and public administrations and between them and the units that comprise the rest of the world.

    Variables studied: main macroeconomic aggregates and the non-financial accounts of the institutional sectors: Non-financial Corporate Enterprises, Financial Institutions, Public Administrations, Households and Non-Profit Institutions and the Rest of the World. Available since Operation: Annual Spanish National Accounts: main aggregates Objective: to obtain a systematic and detailed quantification of the economic reality of the country on an annual basis from economic aggregates of demand, supply and income both at current prices and in terms of volume, as well as employment and national income.

    Available since and since in the current accounting series. Source: INE Frequency: annual. Operation: Annual Spanish National Accounts: aggregates by industry Objective: estimation of economic aggregates of supply, employment and income by branch of activity of the national economy. Variables studied: production, intermediate consumption, gross value added, compensation of employees, wages and salaries and social contributions, gross operating surplus and gross mixed income, other net taxes on production, employment jobs, persons, full-time equivalent employment and hours worked, all broken down for the total and employees.

    Scope for which the results are published: nacional. Source: INE Frequency: anual. Operation: Annual Non-Financial Accounts by Institutional Sectors Objective: quantify the economic relations occurring during the year between the institutional sectors that make up the national economy non-financial corporations, financial corporations, general government, households and non-profit institutions serving households , and between these and the rest of the world. Variables studied: transactions and balances of the complete sequence of non-financial accounts of the institutional sectors and of the accounts of the rest of the world.

    Available since Scope for which the results are published: national. Operation: Annual Spanish National Accounts: Supply and Use tables Objective: estimation of the GDP components of supply and demand at a very detailed level of products and branches of activity for the national economy. Variables studied: production, intermediate consumption, gross value added GVA , compensation of employees, gross operating surplus and gross mixed income and other net taxes on production, broken down by homogeneous branches of activity, taxes and subsidies on products, trade and transport margins, final consumption expenditure, gross capital formation, exports and imports.

    All variables are presented broken down by products except for the employment, income and GVA aggregates. Disponible desde y desde en la serie contable vigente. Source: INE Frequency: five-yearly. Operation: Spanish Regional Accounts Objective: compilation of the Spanish system of Regional Accounts in accordance with the methodology established in the European System of National and Regional Accounts, ESA, which allows for offering the most complete, quantified and systematic description possible, of the regional economic activity in Spain Autonomous Communities and provinces during the reference period considered, analysed from both a functional and an institutional perspective.

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    Structural and Demographic Business Statistics (SDBS), OECD - OECD

    Variables studied: regional aggregates of production activities by branch of activity gross value added, compensation of employees, employment, gross fixed capital formation ; Regional Gross Domestic Product RGDP and household regional accounts. The gross added value by activity branch and the RGDP are provided both in current and volume variation terms. Scope for which the results are published: Autonomous Community, provincial. Operation: Spanish Tourism Satellite Account Objective: to obtain a systematic, comparable and complete representation of tourist activity, adapted as well as possible to the concepts, definitions and classifications that appear in the manual of the Satellite Tourism Account compiled by the World Tourism Organisation.

    Variables studied: generation and distribution of tourism added value, employment, gross formation of fixed capital and tourist expenditure. Operation: Environmental accounts Conducted since: Operation: Mercantile Companies Statistics Objective: to offer monthly information on the companies created, the companies dissolved, and those in which changes in capital have taken place.

    Variables studied: the number and social capital of the companies created, dissolved or modifying their capital, by legal condition of the company, capital bracket and type of company. Operation: Business Turnover Index Objective: to measure the short-term evolution of turnover for the non-financial economic sectors Extractive and manufacturing industries, Electrical energy and water, Trade and Non-financial services.

    Variables studied: turnover. Source: INE Frequency: monthly. Operation: Short-Term Stock and Inventory Survey Objective: to provide the information needed to obtain a short-term indicator that measures the evolution of the inventory level in trade and industry sectors. Variables studied: inventory level index by activity sector. Operation: Bankruptcy Proceedings Statistics Objective: to provide quarterly information on the number of debtors processed and some of their main characteristics, from information collected monthly in the new Mercantile Courts, Courts of First Instance, and Courts of First Instance and Trial with mercantile competence.

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    Variables studied: the number of debtors processed, type of process, type of procedure and existence of anticipated proposals of agreement and their content. Scope for which the results are published: national, Autonomous Community. Operation: Business Confidence Indicators Objective: to obtain information through stratified-sampling surveys on the evolution of given economic variables over time and of the expectations or perspectives in the future.

    Variables studied: situation and expectations regarding business performance. Conducted since: Second quarter of Scope for which the results are published: national, Autonomous Community as of CBR Objective: to group all Spanish companies and their local units located in the national territory in a single information system.

    Its basic objective is to make possible the implementation of economic surveys by sampling.