Handbook of Language and Social Interaction (Routledge Communication Series)

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Piaget was employed at the Binet Institute in the s, where his job was to develop French versions of questions on English intelligence tests. He became intrigued with the reasons children gave for their wrong answers to the questions that required logical thinking. He believed that these incorrect answers revealed important differences between the thinking of adults and children. Piaget was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development. His contributions include a stage theory of child cognitive development, detailed observational studies of cognition in children, and a series of simple but ingenious tests to reveal different cognitive abilities.

What Piaget wanted to do was not to measure how well children could count, spell or solve problems as a way of grading their I. What he was more interested in was the way in which fundamental concepts like the very idea of number , time, quantity, causality , justice and so on emerged. Piaget showed that young children think in strikingly different ways compared to adults.

According to Piaget, children are born with a very basic mental structure genetically inherited and evolved on which all subsequent learning and knowledge are based. The goal of the theory is to explain the mechanisms and processes by which the infant, and then the child, develops into an individual who can reason and think using hypotheses. To Piaget, cognitive development was a progressive reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and environmental experience.

Children construct an understanding of the world around them, then experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in their environment. Stages of Cognitive Development : sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational. Imagine what it would be like if you did not have a mental model of your world.

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It would mean that you would not be able to make so much use of information from your past experience or to plan future actions. Schemas are the basic building blocks of such cognitive models, and enable us to form a mental representation of the world. Piaget , p. Wadsworth suggests that schemata the plural of schema be thought of as 'index cards' filed in the brain, each one telling an individual how to react to incoming stimuli or information.

When Piaget talked about the development of a person's mental processes, he was referring to increases in the number and complexity of the schemata that a person had learned. When a child's existing schemas are capable of explaining what it can perceive around it, it is said to be in a state of equilibrium, i.

Piaget emphasized the importance of schemas in cognitive development and described how they were developed or acquired. A schema can be defined as a set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations. The assumption is that we store these mental representations and apply them when needed. For example, a person might have a schema about buying a meal in a restaurant. The schema is a stored form of the pattern of behavior which includes looking at a menu, ordering food, eating it and paying the bill.

This is an example of a type of schema called a 'script.

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The schemas Piaget described tend to be simpler than this - especially those used by infants. He described how - as a child gets older - his or her schemas become more numerous and elaborate. Piaget believed that newborn babies have a small number of innate schemas - even before they have had many opportunities to experience the world.

These neonatal schemas are the cognitive structures underlying innate reflexes. These reflexes are genetically programmed into us. For example, babies have a sucking reflex, which is triggered by something touching the baby's lips. A baby will suck a nipple, a comforter dummy , or a person's finger.

Piaget, therefore, assumed that the baby has a 'sucking schema.

Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science, Second Edition Animal Models, Volume III

Similarly, the grasping reflex which is elicited when something touches the palm of a baby's hand, or the rooting reflex, in which a baby will turn its head towards something which touches its cheek, are innate schemas. Shaking a rattle would be the combination of two schemas, grasping and shaking. Jean Piaget ; see also Wadsworth, viewed intellectual growth as a process of adaptation adjustment to the world.

Handbook of Language and Social Interaction: 1st Edition (Paperback) - Routledge

This happens through:. Equilibrium occurs when a child's schemas can deal with most new information through assimilation. However, an unpleasant state of disequilibrium occurs when new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas assimilation. Equilibration is the force which drives the learning process as we do not like to be frustrated and will seek to restore balance by mastering the new challenge accommodation.

Once the new information is acquired the process of assimilation with the new schema will continue until the next time we need to make an adjustment to it. A 2-year-old child sees a man who is bald on top of his head and has long frizzy hair on the sides. Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development which reflect the increasing sophistication of children's thought:. Each child goes through the stages in the same order, and child development is determined by biological maturation and interaction with the environment.

Although no stage can be missed out, there are individual differences in the rate at which children progress through stages, and some individuals may never attain the later stages. Piaget did not claim that a particular stage was reached at a certain age - although descriptions of the stages often include an indication of the age at which the average child would reach each stage.

The main achievement during this stage is Object Permanence - knowing that an object still exists, even if it is hidden. During this stage, young children can think about things symbolically. Learning strategies: a term to describe specific behaviours or techniques one uses to enhance her learning. Learning styles: a term to describe general approaches that one uses in learning a subject.

Novices must be allowed to be part of the activity even if their participation is peripheral. Linguistic determinism: a strong version of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis of the relation between language, culture and thought, which asserts that language controls thought and culture. Linguistic relativity: a weak version and a moderate claim of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis of the relation between language, culture and thought, which argues that language influences thought and world views and, therefore, differences among languages cause differences in the thoughts of their speakers.

Locutionary act: According to Austin , a speech act consists of three acts: locutionary act, illocutionary act and perlocutionary act. Locutionary act is the actual utterance and its ostensible meaning. Long-term orientation: a cultural orientation that focuses on traditions cf. Low uncertainty avoidance: a cultural orientation in which people accept uncertainty and ambiguity.

Masculinity: a cultural orientation in which ambition, achievement, and money are favoured. Mass tourism: a type of tourism in which a large number of people travel for pleasure in a foreign country.

Membership Categorisation Device: abbreviated as MCA, a term proposed by Sacks as an analytical concept to describe how people use language to order the objects of the world into categories such as family, mother, student, etc. Migrant: a general term to refer to anyone who lives away from his or her home country for a considerable length of time. Modern language studies: a type of language studies in which target languages are still in use, as opposed to classical language studies. Out-group: a group with whom one feels few emotional ties or little sense of belonging cf.

Passing: a phenomenon in which speakers use the language varieties of social and ethnic groups to which they do not normally belong in order to be perceived as one of them. It refers to actual production of a language either in spoken form or writing. Perlocutionary act: According to Austin , a speech act consists of three acts: locutionary act, illocutionary act and perlocutionary act. Perlocutionary act is the consequence of what has been said. Phatic communion: a term, usually attributed to Malinoswki , refers to the type of speech in which the bonds among the speakers concerned are maintained or created through a mere exchange of words.

It is often used in contrast with other types of speech which have clear transactional goals. Point-making style: a rhetoric style referring to how speakers state and support their communicative intent such as wishes, demands, etc. Pragmatic failure: a term used by Thomas to refer to the phenomenon of misunderstanding in interactions with second language users.

There are two types of pragmatic failure: pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic failure. The former is the type of pragmatic failure in which pragmatic force in an utterance by a second language user does not match that by a native speaker. Race: when used in contrast with ethnicity, it refers to biological and genetic make-up of a given population. In some contemporary academic discussions, race is regarded as a social and cultural construction instead of biological.

Rapport: a notion proposed by Spencer-Oatey to take motivational concerns of participants such as face wants and relationship building into account in interpreting interactions. Re-entry shock: the feeling of lost and disappointment when one returns home after being away for a while. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: the observations by Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf on the interrelationship between language, culture and thought. There are different versions of the hypothesis. The most well-known are Linguistic Determinism and Linguistic Relativity. Schema: the collection of knowledge of past experiences which is stored in memory and retrieved when prompted to guide our behaviour and sense-making.

It includes benevolence, tradition, conformity, security, power, achievement, hedonism the need or motivation for pleasure , stimulation, self-direction, and universalism. Second language learning: a type of language learning situation in which students learn to speak a new language which is used as primary means of communication in their daily communication.

Short-term orientation: a cultural orientation which emphasises the present cf.

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Small talk: non-task-oriented conversation in which speakers have no explicit transactional goals. Study abroad: the type of educational activities which involves students studying and living away from their home countries. Subculture: a group which is different from the dominant group, or a small group within a large group. Superdiversity: the term describes high level of social, cultural and linguistic complexity and diversity in a society. Surface learning: a type of learning approach which focus on memorising information rather than developing a good understanding of the subject under study.

Talk about social, cultural and linguistic practices: an analytical tool kit proposed by Zhu to describe linguistic practice between parents and children, in which parents and children make comments about ways of speaking and associated social and cultural values explicitly or implicitly. Thick description: a method of describing events and behaviours in detail and in their contexts as opposed to bare facts.

It was proposed by Geertz It includes the way tourists gaze upon things extraordinary as well as how the gaze is constructed, anticipated and fulfilled. Transformative learning theory: a theory that was initially developed for adult learning. It proposes that learning is a process of perspective transformation through reflection on experience and engagement with experience.

U-curve: the process and various stages of culture adaption and culture stage have been described as a U shape with satisfaction level highest upon arrival and then the lowest when experiencing culture shock, followed by a recovery. This type of communication has a primary aim of control and information relay. Visual learning style: a type of learning style in which learners use visual aids or mental images to remember or understand words or concepts.

Wakimae: a Japanese cultural key term, referring to the fact that people are expected to observe social norms in society. The similar process applies when one returns home: highest satisfaction when arriving at home and then feeling of loss and disappointment, followed by recovery. The last decade has seen a rapid expansion of textbooks, handbooks, readers and book series in the field of Intercultural Communication.

Handbook Language Social Interaction

Below is a selective list up to It contains:. Bowe, H.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The book provides an introduction to linguistic matters that either result from or impact on cultural differences. It is written primarily from a cross-cultural comparison perspective. Jandt, F. Thousand Oaks: Sage. An introductory textbook covering a wide range of issues in communication and culture. There is a wealth of examples, case studies, and cultural features to aid classroom use. The book has various editions. London: Sage. The book provides an introduction to communication theory and practice in the context of globalization.

Topics include international conflict, social networking, migration and the role of technology, the mass media, etc. Neuliep, J. Intercultural Communication: A Contextual Approach 4th edition. An intermediate-level textbook on the general issues of intercultural communication. Using a contextual model, the book identifies a number of interacting factors contributing to the success of Intercultural Communication.

Piller, I. Intercultural Communication: A Critical Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.


Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

The book adopts discourse analysis and sociolinguistic perspectives and provides an up-to-date review of themes and issues of intercultural communication. Samovar, L. Communication between Cultures 6th edition. Belmont: Wadsworth. An intermediate-level textbook providing an overview of issues and theories in Intercultural Communication. Scollon, R. It begins with Chapter 24, in which Martin Warren highlights the key principles of DDL and addresses it as a form of self-directed learning. The chapter provides examples of classroom application of DDL followed by a critical analysis of its strengths and limitations.

The authors outline key findings from research into spoken corpora and use a case study to investigate pedagogical implications of using spoken corpora for language learning. She highlights the benefits of using a written corpus, in particular a pedagogical one, in helping learners upgrade their writing skills. The author puts a strong emphasis on pedagogical solutions and points to the challenges of integrating corpora into the teaching of writing. She investigates language corpora as input for a range of learner resources such as grammar books, dictionaries, or automated annotation.

She also points to the role of corpus input as a teacher training resource for non-native language teachers. The chapter encompasses a thorough discussion of various types of language corpora and their pedagogical applications. The selection includes general, specialised, parallel, historical, and multimodal corpora.

The authors conclude the chapter by discussing future directions predicted in the field. In Chapter 30 , Jonathon Reinhardt and Steve Thorne suggest approaching gaming through the "game as method" metaphor. In their discussion they examine several correspondences between game design and L2 design, namely goal-orientation, interaction or interactivity, feedback, context, and motivation.

Finally, the authors examine digital games through the lens of L2 learning theories. They situate them within SLA theory and practice, and explore their utility in language learning and teaching. In Chapter 32 she addresses all the key issues related to gaming used in and outside of school, starting with a look back at the pioneering work on gaming and language learning, followed by a discussion of game genres, and finishing with an examination of the pedagogical implications of using games to teach young language learners.

In this regard, Li Li investigates the potentials of available technologies for addressing lexical and grammatical features of language learning. In Chapter 33 , the author discusses the benefits of CALL in lexico-grammatical acquisition and, having presented the principles of integrating CALL tools in these language areas, reviews a collection of dedicated tools.

The author provides theoretical underpinnings which serve as background to an overview of technologies applied to the teaching of reading and writing. Due attention is given to related challenges—namely interaction, feedback, and group dynamics. First, the use of recorded audio in language learning is investigated through a historical lens, which is then replaced with a pedagogical one. Then, the authors explore a selection of technology tools designed for facilitating the development of oral and aural skills. The authors clarify all the key concepts, investigate the potential of multimodality in language acquisition, and address the issues of cognitive overload and polyfocality of attention.

The chapter also explores the issue of learners' multimodal competence and argues for teacher trainers to give greater consideration to the development of teachers' semio-pedagogical competence. The authors introduce the reader to the field, discuss the provision of corrective feedback, and automated writing evaluation, lexical glosses and electronic dictionaries.

They also outline the main considerations for the research and development of computational parsers and grammars. The authors critically evaluate the effectiveness of the system and its integration into formal classroom teaching. Since CALL is an incredibly rich and diversified research area which is continuously branching off in response to booming technologies, a regular scrutiny and re-examination of all the related fields is essential.

This volume, edited by Farr and Murray, is a timely response to this pressing need as it covers virtually all the major fields of computer-enhanced language learning, from the already well-established areas of Computer-Mediated Communication or CALL-responsive teacher education to the relatively emerging areas of gaming, mobile learning, or multimodal pedagogy, to mention but a few examples.

Indeed, the authors' intention to address the needs of readers representing various levels of expertise is evident throughout the volume, in which the breadth of theoretical perspectives is successfully married to a very consistent pedagogical angle. Practically all the contributors put a strong emphasis on pedagogically sound uses of technology, their integration with existing practices, ensuing challenges and limitations, and subsequent implications for language teachers.

This consistent twin theory-practice focus is a major strength of the volume and, combined with consistent clarity of style, makes it accessible to various readerships. Maintaining it throughout such a large and comprehensive publication is a challenge, and an impressive job has been done by the editors to ensure a consistent structure and a complementary scope of all the contributions.

This has been additionally reinforced by cross-referencing between the chapters. All these strategies help to maintain high consistency within this publication despite its impressive size and scope. Part 1 chapters with its explicit focus on CALL concepts and theories serves as a reminder that at the background of all the novel practices there is a rich theoretical context, consistently alluded to throughout the entire volume. This introductory part will be of particular value to those readers who need theoretical guidance in researching and designing CALL since, as the editors themselves acknowledge, in a field as broad and dynamic as CALL "it can be difficult to tell where it all began, where it is going and what it means" page 1.

Even more importantly, a steady theoretical focus helps to anchor the whole volume in all its diversity to theories and frameworks which will remain fundamental despite the ephemerality of technology solutions. One could argue that, perhaps, the attention given to some branches of CALL could have better reflected their current position within the field.