Fate and Management of Turfgrass Chemicals

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This is called residual activity. One drawback to extended residual activity, or persistence, is that the pesticide may also be available for leaching or runoff over a longer period of time. Photolysis photocomposition : The degradation of chemicals by light is called photolysis, or photodecomposition.

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Photolysis occurs on the plant, soil, water, or any other surface that sunlight reaches. Hydrolysis: Water also degrades pesticides by dividing large molecules into smaller ones, breaking them down in the process called hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of pesticides can occur on the soil surface, in the root zone, or whenever a source of water is available. Hydrolysis may be very active in warm water at or near the soil surface.

As the water temperature cools at depths below the root zone, the rate of hydrolysis slows. In deep groundwater, hydrolysis slows dramatically. Microbiological Degradation: Microorganisms break down or degrade pesticides after application. Most microorganisms-a category which includes bacteria, viruses, fungi, algae, and protozoa-live in the upper foot of soil where they find warm temperatures, moisture, and organic matter, and where they do most of their work degrading pesticides.

Herbicide - Wikipedia

Microorganisms are most active in soils having high organic matter. As the pesticide moves down below the root zone, microbiological degradation decreases because of less favorable living conditions for the microorganisms. Volatilization: A liquid chemical on a plant or soil surface can be converted into a vapor, which escapes into the atmosphere.

Pesticide vapors that drift through the air may be hazardous to plants, humans, and animals. Applicators should read the label carefully to find warnings that will tell them that the pesticide is volatile. Provides a national-scale analysis of pesticide occurrence in streams and groundwater.

Toggle navigation. Degradation Processes Photolysis photocomposition : The degradation of chemicals by light is called photolysis, or photodecomposition. Compiled by Ron Gardner. Starrett and Shelli K. Durborow et al. Carroll et al. Snyder and J. Haith et al. Baird et al. Marshall Clark et al.

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Fate and Management of Turfgrass Chemicals

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