Ergonomics in design: methods & techniques
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Karwowski is a board certiied professional ergonomist BCPE.
His research, teaching, and consulting activities focus on human systems integration, work systems compatibility, human—computer interaction, prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, manufacturing enterprises and management ergonomics, and theoretical aspects of ergo- nomics science. Marcelo M. He was president of this organization for seven years. He has also provided leadership in Human Factors and Ergonomics Latin America and internationally as a member of the executive committee of the International Ergonomics Association.
His research, teaching, and consulting activities focus on manufacturing ergonomics, usability, product design, and information ergonomics. He has also done signiicant research and consulting for several companies in Brazil. Neville A. Prior to that, he held a chair in human factors at Brunel University since September Previously, he held a lectureship and then readership in engineering psychology at the University of Southampton since September Professor Stanton was also a visiting fellow at Cornell University during He has published over peer-reviewed journal papers including papers in Nature and New Scientist and 18 books on human factors and ergonomics.
In , he was awarded the Institution of Electrical Engineers Divisional Premium Award for a co-authored paper on engineering psychol- ogy and system safety. Professor Stanton is an editor of the journal Ergonomics and is on the editorial board of Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. Professor Stanton is a fellow and char- tered occupational psychologist registered with The British Psychological Society, and a fellow of The Ergonomics Society. Channa P. Related Papers.
Human factors and ergonomics in consumer product design: uses and applications. By Marcelo M Soares.
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Advances in Usability Evaluation Part 1. Ergonomics in design: solutions and proposals for a better interface with the user. Virtual Reality in Consumer. By Harminder Kaur. What are we saying about men?
Human Factors and Ergonomics in Consumer Product Design: Methods and Techniques - Google книги
What are we saying about women? As creative designers we feel the necessity of a smarter approach to design and the responsibility to be active protagonists in changing our society. The aim is training creative designers in order to let them introduce and slowly educate audience to accept cultural changes and new models.
Increasingly often, the surgeon operates remotely. This paper reports the ergonomic contribution to the design of a device for the resection of stenosed aortic valves and the implantation of a new aortic bioprosthesis. In high-risk contexts as in cardiac surgery, high fidelity prototypes are necessary to allow clinical trials. An association between engineers and ergonomists becomes essential, because the prototype becomes a key stage of the design process.
We suggest a triangulation of methods heuristic inspection, task analysis and usability testing to produce a high-fidelity prototype reliable for clinical trials. The clinical trials themselves then constitute a preliminary step for further improving the device. Vehicle autonomy is being heavily promoted as a means of improving transportation safety on the roadways. This goal, however, is highly dependent on the ability of human drivers to maintain situation awareness and intervene in circumstances that the automation cannot handle.
While autonomy software is improving, it remains far less capable than human drivers. The automation conundrum shows that even as it improves, system autonomy is increasingly likely to reduce the ability of drivers to provide needed oversight. The Human-Automation System Oversight HASO model provides guidance on the design of vehicle autonomy to facilitate effective human-autonomy design for semi-autonomous vehicles.
ConCA demonstrated the value of exploring distal factors and identifying underlying or latent causes: It promoted an understanding of construction accidents as systemic accidents and challenged an industry-wide culture of blaming frontline workers. A decade later the original article has been cited by research from 37 countries, shaping inquiries and initiatives to improve safety in both the UK and Australia.
Despite broader views of contributing factors, many practitioners still view workers in a negative light, holding them responsible for accidents because of complacency, cynicism about safety, or a high-tolerance for risk. It challenges the negative perceptions of workers, and supports shifting the emphasis of risk management away from worker behaviors and towards resolving wider systemic issues. New directions are proposed which show how knowledge management, job design, technological innovation, empowerment and collaboration should be the focus of future work.
This paper has the goal of demonstrating the development of a design process based on the concepts of ergonomics, interdisciplinary and participatory design in order to aid the respiratory physiotherapy treatment of children with acquired and congenital visual disability. The public Brazilian healthcare system has several problems to afford medical equipment to public hospitals and physiotherapy centers. Thus, this kind of facilities is hardly accessible for the majority of population, specially failing to attend the needs of the visually disabled. Therefore, providing an affordable product truly efficient to be used in the respiratory treatment for children with visual disability was a significantly relevant goal.
Through an ergonomics approach with participation of many specialists from different fields of knowledge and user-centered design concepts, it was possible to design a facilitating tool to stimulate a playful and more active attitude from the blind child patient during the treatment. Finally, a respiratory physiotherapy equipment was designed and tested with the final user. In recent year, the evaluation method of human motion to clarify the usability is needed because it is a hard task to assess the subjective evaluation of usability of product and the comfort of the environment.
This study aimed to analyze neck motion using feature extraction with motion division and clarify the relationship between neck motion and workability. We propose the motion division method based on the calculation of probability density function from the Gaussian distribution. The algorithm being proposed uses the analysis of the measured data by an experiment.
As part of the experiment, each participant was instructed to gaze at a target while in the sitting posture. The working posture of each participant was measured to evaluate the effects of working velocity on the position of the target. The numbers of extracted feature point decreased with the decreasing working velocity. The normal working velocity condition maximized the number of extracted feature points. Moreover, participants answered the best subjective workability under normal conditions.
These results show that increasing the number of extracted feature points may improve workability. This laboratory study studied the dynamics of sitting during a sustained and mentally demanding computer task. Mental fatigue ratings, overall performance and kinetic were recorded in 20 asymptomatic computer users performing computer work for 40 min divided in 12 time epochs.
The average, standard deviation, and sample entropy values were computed from the COP time series to assess respectively, the magnitude, size and complexity of sitting dynamics. Fatigue ratings significantly increased from before to after the computer task while the overall performance did not change significantly over time.
Time did not play a significant role on any of the outcome measures. The present study demonstrated that the sitting dynamics can be assessed in an ecological environment, e. Further, we found that 40 min seated computer work did not changed the dynamics of sitting. On the contrary, we observed increased size and structure of variability in the ML than the AP direction. This latter finding can be used to design office chairs or interventions aiming at preventing discomfort due to long time sitting. The objective of this paper is to optimize available and current IMCS.
Therefore the development guideline VDI was utilized with a focus on the preparation and calibration procedure as well as the attachment of the sensors. The analyzation revealed optimization potential that was considered in the conception phase. The elaborated improvements included new clothes, a suitcase for the storage of attachments and clothes, a fixture for the initialization of sensors, optimized attachments, and a new calibration procedure with a mechanical construction and line lasers.
The validation showed that the optimized procedure was clear, the new attachments were more comfortable and had a better grip, the calibration posture was reproducible, and the results of the optimized IMCS were better than the results of the standard IMCS. The workspace design process offers opportunities for significant improvements of work environments at low costs.
However, work environment experts and Occupational Health Services OHS personnel are not seen as natural partners, inhibiting their chances of getting experience. This paper reports results from a national pilot intervention project comprised of a methods framework and a course. The aim of the intervention was to teach these professionals reliable, cost-effective and feasible methods for conducting workplace design projects. The intervention also aimed to increase employee participation in workplace design processes and thereby achieve better impact in these cases.
Methods were taught to 56 work environment experts, also creating incentives for them to practice this knowledge. These experts were given incentives to contact and offer their client organizations services for planning new work environments. In the long term, the competence within the field of workplace design on a national level hopefully will be improved.
In this paper we reflect upon and re-examine the impact of one of the most influential papers in recent years in the field of sociotechnical systems design Clegg, In particular, we look at the influence the paper has had upon a diverse range of researchers e. The driving duration is an important consideration for the design and development of automobile seats.
Seating comfort consists of two factors, static and dynamic, and research on passenger cars shows both these factors are influenced by driving duration. However there is limited research to understand the influence of driving duration on seating comfort in motorcycles. This study investigates the influence of driving duration on static factors of seating comfort in motorcycles. Motorcycles from India that are typically used for commuting are considered in this study. The study is carried out with the help of 13 male volunteers and involves subjective rating of seating comfort in a static lab based set up of the motorcycle.
The evaluation is carried out for 60 min and the rating of seating comfort is obtained after every 10 min. The seating comfort reduces with time, however the comfort rating saturates after a duration of 30 min to remain fairly constant. The results of this study provide useful inputs for further research on seating comfort in motorcycles.
Web design has evolved significantly since its text-based roots of the early s to richly interactive and innovative web experiences that we see today. The catalysts for this evolution have been the following trends: technological advances in web standards and their rapid adoption by web browsers; the emergence and widespread adoption of smartphones as the primary computing and communication device; and proliferation of data brought about by our digital interactions from messaging to e-commerce to social media.
These trends have resulted in the design of a variety of creative web design and experiences. Teaching the design practice at the university level, and especially at the university of technology challenges the ageless questions of art and design during the engineering design process. Basically, our role is to train and to foster the development of skilled professionals who produce products that are pleasing, safe and economically bearable. At the forefront of this goal we see different approaches confronting each other.
Scientists, including ergonomists, are looking for strict and exhaustive pre-design studies that present two pitfalls to creativity: copy and paste and monodisciplinary responses. On the contrary, creatives argue our greatest discoveries and creations are born from chance and the most recognised designers are self- taught free thinkers. The aim of this paper is to present a method to reconcile these two points of view: interdisciplinary problem-solving workshops, which began ten years ago and solve difficult situations in various fields while simultaneously creating ingenious solutions impacting the technological advancement of products, services, and environments for the aging population.
Thus, an overview of the systematic is presented, as well as the suggestion of methods and support tools for each phase of the design process. In order to verify the applicability of the systematic in the engineering education, an experiment was carried out in two classes of the product design course in a Brazilian University. One class was chosen as a study group and used the systematic proposal during the course, and the other class was chosen as a control group and used the standard methodology as was already done in the course.
At the end of the course, a questionnaire was applied with the students of both classes, on the understanding and use of HFE in the product design, showing that presenting this content of ergonomics in an appropriate way and together with the design process allows students to be more likely to use it, to understand it better and know how to use it.
Raising the retirement age characterizes the Italian pension policies as long as many other Western countries. The problems associated with the rise of the working-age population occur at the level of the production sector and at the level of the over 50 age workers safety and health risks, who work in the handling and control of industrial machineries.
ILO, The sector of mechanical engineering is part of the metal industry, and it deals with machineries and facilities production. Today many people work into the metal industry, especially the over 50 workers. By identifying the over 50 workers as a specific category of users, the design needs require the adaptation of the workstation to prevent any risks related to safety and to incapacity to work. The purpose of this ergonomics evaluation is the raising of safety and usability standard conditions. This is the case of OCEM 2 company.
It is made up of workers aged between 22 and The project in question aims to an ergonomic evaluation of 6 workstations in the carpentry and assembly departments. The purpose of research project is to improve current workstations through an euristic evaluation of users risks conditions, using the methodological approach of ergonomics for design and its theoretical and operational tools, as Task Analysis, Users observation, Thinking Aloud, questionnaires and interviews.
The aim of the results is to provide the basis for developing the design phase and to improve users risk conditions, usability and users comfort. Seating comfort in automobiles has two important factors, static factors and dynamic factors. Research on static factors of seating comfort often uses static lab based test set-ups to evaluate comfort. Studies, especially in passenger cars, have shown that there is no significant difference in the ratings of seating comfort between lab based set-ups and actual driving. The riding posture, mass distribution and dynamics of a motorcycle are unlike a passenger car and warrant further examination to use static lab based set-ups.
The aim of the current study is to examine the validity of using static lab based set-up to evaluate static factors of seating comfort in motorcycles. The study involves subjective rating of seating comfort and measurement of seat interface pressure in a static lab based set up as well as actual driving in a flat test track for two motorcycles. There are growing numbers of apps and smartphone-mounts for professional cyclists, since they are crucial to track performances during training.
However, these solutions require the athlete to take her hand off the handlebar to interact with it. This represents a major safety issue for the cyclists since it requires leaving the brake control, shifting the attention and, possibly, compromising posture. This paper reports the findings of a user elicitation study conducted with seven professional and semi-professional cyclists in order to design gestures that can be performed while maintaining the hands in the correct position on the handlebar.
Results report the frequency of fingers used for these gestures, with the index being the favorite. Furthermore, it provides a classification of gestures in three categories: press, extension and swipe. The most convenient gestures were the thumb and index press, followed by the extension of different combinations of fingers.
Moreover, this duality also pertains to the development of innovative commodities, as well as in the acquisition of new knowledge. Since PE investigates real-life scenarios the aim of the researcher is to understand the nature and complexity of the future state of the system. In this sense prototypes can be used as probes into that future state due to the fact that once implemented they unveil real interactions and transformations of the system.
Based on the act of design as a critical inquiry in itself, prototypes and prototyping are then being more and more perceived as carriers of reflection and argumentationFrom a pedagogical perspective, prototyping exposes students to larger issues around creating and testing operational models of knowledge. Reversely, when being engaged in collaborative project with industry, prototyping can play an expanded as well as a more effective role in conceptualizing innovative solutions in an efficient manner.
Some people may find it difficult to manage products or interact with systems. This is mostly due to product designed and not to final user. In healthcare the medical devices DMs that highlight design flaws can cause operating errors and generate adverse events. Despite manufactures of medical devices claim that Human Factors have a high priority in their projects, few of these are flawless products from the perspective of design and human-machine interface.
Ergonomics and design methodologies were used in the context of a negotiated procedure for the supply of anesthesia systems for surgeries. Hierarchical task analysis, User Observation, Questionnaire, and Gap Analysis were used for the ergonomics evaluation and to evaluate the usability of an anesthesia system for two Tuscany hospitals.
Ergonomics in Design
The evaluations were conducted with medical personnel doctors and nurses. The obtained results allowed the effectiveness usability levels of product and its components and digital interfaces. The methodology showed in this article provides a useful tool to study ergonomics, usability and errors during the use of anesthesia workstation. European cities are changing due the immigration of people from different cultures. There are many issues related to the integration and dialogue between cultures.
Urban design plays a key role in how migrants participate in their host community and it is an important driver for the inclusion process. Facilitating the participation of residents in designing public spaces and their use helps to create a better sense of belonging. Promoting in public spaces the interaction of different cultures becomes a crucial element to facilitate social cohesion and living together. The research project explores an innovative approach in the use of public spaces, through the design of smart urban furniture. The project, based on the co-design approach of rapid prototyping, creates different kinds of new interaction among urban space and people, and between users of different social or cultural background.
The results presented in this paper, were conducted by the research unit of the University of Florence, in cooperation with the Human Tech Institute and the School of Management of the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland. This study aimed at investigating natural thumb zone of the user in smartphone touchscreen with one-handed grip. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their thumb lengths: small, medium, large.
Experiments were carried out using three smartphones of different sizes: 4. The natural thumb zone of each group was analyzed using heat-map method. Compare to other groups, the thumb zone ratio of the small group in 5. The lowermost region and the upper-left region of the smartphone touchscreen are not commonly included in natural thumb zone, regardless of the thumb-length groups. The results of this study could be used for designing new mobile device to enhance the usability of one-handed interaction; small devices with a touch screen as well.
Data collection included 25 semi-structured interviews with truck drivers and direct observation and image record of their cabins in use. Interviews were also conducted with six experts from truck manufacturing companies and two professionals from cabin customization companies. The results suggest that trips with many overnight stays, typical of Brazilian use, generate needs not always met by the original designs of the cabins, so there are many adaptations made by users in order to sleep more comfortably, store objects, cook and eat, travel with their families, just to mention some.
The high incidence of robberies generates demands for solutions to meet basic feeding and hygiene needs inside the cabins, as well as anti-theft devices. It is concluded that Brazilian users desire higher cabins, larger beds, night air conditioning, onboard refrigerators, suitable electrical installations, solutions to accommodate and transport family members safely. Thus, there is potential for a greater offer of customization by the manufacturers, in order to achieve better adaptation as to the use observed in Brazil.
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Well-established models of workload focus on the cognitive demands placed on an individual and the capacity of cognitive resources to respond to those demands. These models, and the range of measurement tools which have been used to capture workload in real world and laboratory settings have been vital in ensuring design of work to take into account workload over the past four decades. This paper will consider how we should now build on these well-established foundations to develop a new suite of tools and approaches suitable for 21st Century workplaces.
In the past, it was impractical to apply detailed automatic capture of work either through physiological measures of people, or through sensing of interaction in situ in a workplace. Development of technologies, alongside changing attitudes towards sensing in workplace settings, mean that we now have new tools and large data sets potentially available to capture a wider range of elements of a workplace, potentially enriching our workload measurement data set, and making triangulation of methods routine and seamless.
However, these enriched data sets will need to take into account the changed nature of work. Workplaces now see increasing collaboration between people and autonomous systems Kaber Workplace tasks normally now involve multiple people, systems, technologies and artefacts. Typically, workload assessment tools have only considered single people and single roles where multiple resource theory provides a framework to capture two or more elements of a single role.
Similarly, unlike theories such as Situation Awareness Endsley Endsley workload theories do not tend to directly address the role of the social and organisational context on the effect of work, and it is proposed that through the adoption of established notions such as cognitive appraisal they can and should now do this. Finally, workload models tend to be based on the traditional human information processing model Wickens et al.
This paper will address the above in the light of reviewing the strong foundations of workload theory, and building upon this to identify challenges and priorities for workload theories and tools for our future workplaces. Guitarists interact with many elements such as music stand, chair and implements for instrument positioning in order to accomplish their artistic activity.
This paper aims to describe a postural analysis of three existing auxiliary implements as the base for generating design parameters of a new device for guitar positioning. To carry out the postural evaluation, guitarists were asked to play a fingering exercise specially designed for this study. They were video recorded in three different angles simultaneously.
Afterwards, all videos were synchronized and divided in photograms in order to apply the Rapid Entire Body Assessment REBA , which was useful as a diagnostic test to identify higher risk postures. Subsequently, the angles of the above-mentioned body segments were estimated using the 3DSSPP software.
There is little emphasis given by the discipline of ergonomics to hospital architecture in Brazil. The research focused on the spatial quality and user satisfaction through an ergonomic standpoint. It analyzed the pediatric oncology therapy area, focusing on chemotherapy treatment. Therefore, the intent here is to increase the scarce existing material on the architecture literature dedicated to the study of this spatial typology.
The case study showed that ambiance is key in creating a sense of well-being, hospitality, and comfort to users. It contributed to a didactic interaction with patients, breaking the usual concept of sobriety and sterility of a hospital. This promoted the interaction between different actors, which avoided the habitual isolation of a child in new spaces and discomforts with certain therapeutic practices. The concept of hospital environment based on the precepts of cognitive ergonomics expands the understanding of hospital ecology.
It encompasses the dimensions of relationships, the physical structure, and the way these two interact with the activities that occur there. Ambiance then becomes an important factor in breaking preconceived ideas of what healthcare spaces should look like. This contributes to the construction of new situations that may come to transform paradigms of healthcare spaces. It shows that both Ergonomics of the built environment and Ergonomics in the design process play a relevant part in the betterment of healthcare spaces.
As such, the goal here is to understand the relationship between users and the environment, assessing whether it meets the needs of children and their caregivers. It seeks to understand how the integral needs of the users may become the focus — to the detriment of the disease-centered approach —, with more humanized spaces adapted to their expectations and needs. Monitoring of workplace intervention processes in real-time can identify factors influencing intervention success or failure while they can still be modified if necessary.
The aims of this study are to describe a process to assess and where necessary improve functionality and usability of a process evaluation mobile app. App users are members and co-facilitators of labor-management health and safety committees, internal program champions, other managers, and researchers. Post-meeting feedback surveys cover participant engagement, group dynamics, and usefulness of the intervention at each step.
Pilot tests were conducted across combinations of device specifications to assess both functionality and usability. Functionality problems were fixed as they were documented. The average System Usability Scale scores for seven student testers were similar between the two interfaces: Development of a mobile app requires substantial effort and personnel time which may not be apparent at the start of the project. Communication between researchers and the app developer was challenging at times. Conceptual and mental models of the specifications do not necessarily correspond due to differences in fields, experience, and priorities.
Effective communication is critical to sociotechnical systems.
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Such systems may entail distributed authority and responsibility, and physical resources that are not collocated. This is certainly the case in crisis management. To improve communication during crisis management, researchers have tried to enhance the communication technology. However, communication problems persist even in the presence of robust technology. Several studies of communication have examined the consequences of the spatial distribution of operators working on the achievement of a common goal.
Yet, few have researchers have investigated the effects of temporal distribution. Drawing on documentation of the Deepwater Horizon Accident in , we select examples to reveal the temporal distribution of events that affect the availability of contextual information across a socio-technical system. We claim that temporal distance, like spatial distance, reduces global awareness and the opportunity to observe the incidental behaviour that renders activities mutually accessible.
The goal of usability testing is to make design decisions based on objective data and user-centered criteria. Iteration in usability testing is key to identify the design decisions that hinder the interaction between users and interfaces, additionally validates the design elements that enhance it.
Diabetes complications can be diminished through the metabolic control of the patient, which is achieved through the implementation of a dietary plan. Two usability assessments were carried out during the interface development, this study presents the second iteration of the assessment of the interface redesign based on the results of the first evaluation, the feedback from the participants and the application of the ergonomic guidelines. Three dimensions of usability were evaluated: satisfaction, efficiency and effectiveness. Both interfaces showed similar results in usability. The use of color was identified as a design element to be assessed in an isolated manner.
The iterative assessment allowed to improve the proposed guidelines for the design of instructional interfaces and when applied in the interface design process, results in a positive effect on its usability. In addition, the recommendations made by the users of the first test were validated through the iterative testing, making this a user centered process. To reach the objective, a test was performed with three 3D printed lids that were redesigned based on valuable features regarding the overall shape, texture, and dimensions as found in previous studies.
The most different characteristic among the lids was the overall shape. Overall, the results in this study provide valuable ideas to designers in order to create lids that are able to satisfy the needs and preferences of people with characteristics similar to those of the participants in this research. Similarly, the study offers an opportunity for trying the ideas with other groups of users. Comfort issue is one of the major concerns regarding backpack design. Previous studies have tried to improve backpack comfort in different ways such as reducing load weights and balancing the load distribution.
However, few studies have investigated the issues related to thermal comfort, which is a fundamental problem for bicycle rider with backpacks. Interviews were firstly completed among fifty participants to investigate their usage pattern and usability issues regarding backpack use. Following, a test was conducted with participants to find out the possible difficulties and problems when cycling with a backpack. The main sweating areas on the back were identified. Design criteria were formulated, and a product prototype was developed accordingly. An experiment was then conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the ventilation design in two conditions of walking and cycling.
Skin temperatures of the back were measured using the infrared thermographic camera. Results showed that the shell support of the backpack design could provide better air circulation in the gap between the body and the backpack. Recent advances in terms of affordability of the eye-tracking technology and the implementation of smarter algorithms enable designers implement this interaction method more usable.
The presented study tested two user-dependent design parameters deviation angle of the gaze and duration time of fixations between strokes which constitutes to be significant important for this interaction method. Therefore, participants executed a large number of gestures on the gaze gesture test bench.
The parameter values were variated to receive comparable results over all tested gestures. The gestures presented discrete actions for controlling interface menus. The results showed that there exists an optimum between tolerant detection and ratio of misinterpretation by the system. Further, the perceived individual motorial and cognitive strain and the statements about the difficulty of the executions were compared with the objective measurements.
As a conclusion, parameter values have been identified which are also reliable in terms of usability. Regardless of the areas considered, designers need to develop products that are both innovative and user-friendly, and thus creative . In order to favor their creative activities, the designers can use different methods, amongst which we propose a new kind of method of personas. Thermal performance of three bicycle helmets for radiative and convective heat loss was evaluated through heat loss experiments in a wind tunnel.
A 3D printed thermal manikin head of a 50th percentile western male population was developed. Thermal performance of a helmet was quantified by comparing the manikin head heat losses with and without helmet. Experiments were performed for two air velocities: 1. An infrared heat lamp positioned above the manikin simulated the effect of solar load. The radiative heat gain ranged from 3.