Conservation of Historic Buildings
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Since its publication in Sir Bernard Feilden's Conservation of Historic Buildings has become the standard text for architects and others involved in the conservation of historic structures. Leading practitioners around the world have praised the book as being the most significant single volume on the subject to be published. This third edition revises and updates a classic book, including completely new sections on conservation of Modern Movement buildings and non-destructive investigation.
The result of the lifetime's experience of one of the world's leading architectural conservators, the book comprehensively surveys the fundamental principles of conservation in their application to historic buildings, and provides the basic information needed by architects, engineers and surveyors for the solution of problems of architectural conservation in almost every climatic region of the world. This edition is organized into three complementary parts: in the first the structure of buildings is dealt with in detail; the second focuses attention on the causes of decay and the materials they affect; and the third considers the practical role of the architect involved in conservation and rehabilitation.
As well as being essential reading for architects and others concerned with conservation, many lay people with various kinds of responsibility for historic buildings will find this clearly written, jargon-free work a fruitful source of guidance and information. The Division of Antiquities, however, maintained that instead of protecting these buildings one by one, aerial protection should be provided in order to preserve them in their context. However, after long discussions with the central government, building owners and the city council in the year , the Division of Antiquities managed to declare 26 historic building, 5 Monuments and 1 Architectural Conservation Area.
The listed historic buildings are still intact and in use. It exhibits unique cultural and architectural landscape: this heritage values has survived for over years. It was established by the German colonial administration as the administrative and political centre of Dar es Salaam and expanded and consolidated during the British colonial administration.
It contains buildings and cultural landscape which are of great architectural, historical and aesthetic values early 19 th and 20 th century.
The planning and designing of this area inform of a large botanical garden that is unique in the context of urban planning and design. It is an outstanding example of architectural ensemble and landscape which illustrates significant stage in the city development. The total size of the Conservation Area is 0. This process in not reversible-once gone, the familiar and intimately scaled locales cannot be reinstated, and bland, modern, sanitized edifices obliterate the patina and unique qualities of the humble historic townscape.
In the city as a whole, in fact, the limited Antiquities legislation that existed was routinely ignored. The symposium took place in Vienna Austria and came up with a Memorandum on World Heritage and Contemporary Architecture-Managing the Historic Urban Landscape as an important outcome of the meeting. The Salamander building before and during demolition works the public was against the demolition of this building. The Antiquities Act enacted by the independent government in and amended in to replace the Colonial Monuments 6 Preservation Ordinance promulgated in , is the basic legislation for the protection and preservation of the country cultural built heritage.
Conservation of group of historic buildings was archived in when the Antiquities Amendment Act was enacted by Parliament. The Act section 58 gives mandate to the Local Planning Authority to designated conservation areas. The existing structure should be retained and, where necessary improvements and restorations undertaken, new structures associated with the existing facilities will be permitted.
They shall be limited to three storeys in height and maintaining the character of the existing structure and the surrounding area. To gather useful information on important historic buildings, this study employed interpretative historical research based on literature and case-study approach. Much effort was directed to a comprehensive review of the existing literature, on-site examination of the properties, and photographic, mapping and documentation.
A structured questionnaire was also used. The colonial period has left its marks on the legal systems, but even more on the concepts of protection and identification of cultural heritage. The architectural conservation areas under study portray heritage built during colonial times. The existing legal and administrative systems favor the concept of monumentalism and neglect other types of heritage such as historic landscapes or vernacular architecture. It takes also very little or no cognizance of associated intangible and spiritual values.
It is observed that the Division of Antiquities has played a more active role compared to Local Government Authorities conservation of the built heritage, but lacked the capacity to link conservation to public policies to mitigate the impact of the economic development.
It enlarged the scope of its policies to include built heritage conservation but restricted the action to the narrow track of preservation control on listed monuments. By doing so, it lost the possibility for a future alliance with the owners of heritage properties and local government authorities. The study reveals that, in the Western world, most heritage conservation activities are the responsibility of municipal and county authorities; the central state plays only a supervisory role in policies enacted and follow-ups. But in Tanzania the administration of heritage is vested in the centralized national government administrations.
Usually, centralized administration systems make it difficult for heritage management institutions to be responsible for the needs of the communities and stakeholders. The only document that exists for conservation and management of built heritage in Dar es Salaam is the Master Plan of and the Dar es Salaam Central Area Redevelopment Plan of The DMP recognizes the importance of conserving the built heritage.
New structures associated with the existing facilities will be permitted but limited to three storeys in height and maintaining the characters of the existing structure and surrounding areas DSMP Tamla expressed his concern that the Master Plans include development conditions which are too general to ensure strict and systematic inventory of new developments. For example there are no dictated development conditions and guidelines.
The Master Plan emphasizes only about 8 characters in general but no information about facades, frontage, color, massing or walling materials. Moreover, this Plan is outdated, because it was supposed to be revised in every five years of operations, but it has never been revised since , and it was supposed to operate for 20 only from This plan was due for three years It was prepared because of the increasing pressure for the city centre business space that has gained momentum recently hence prompted preparation of the Redevelopment Plan.
It was noted that, at present, the development activities are taking place on piecemeal basis with high-rise structures gradually replacing the single and double storey structures without regard to consequential infrastructure and service requirements. The Plan recognized the presence of architectural heritage and a need to preserve the rich history of Dar es Salaam city centre through conservation of buildings and other features of architectural and cultural significance. Yet it zoned the area with historic building to be built with building height from 6 up to 10 storeys, or above Within the architectural conservation area the plan zoned for building with height from 3 to 6 storeys.
The existing historic buildings have 1 to 2 storeys. The Municipal Council expects their laws to carry more weight in the planning process than the Antiquities Act of For example, the City Planner said in an interview that the DCC is in overall in charge for managements and development in the city. Besides that, owners were confused on the role of the various government agencies, especially that of the Division of Antiquities and the DCC. They did not understand their role and responsibilities in the conservation of the buildings which they own.
However, some owners expressed their willingness, with proper education, sensitization and involvement to fully participate in the conservation process including financial contributions in rehabilitating their building according to the existing regulations. One good example is the field interview with the manager for the Southern Sun Hotel who said that his hotel was located within the Conservation Area, and for this reason, they should have a role to play in conservation. They are also financing the upkeep of the botanical garden which is one of the key features of the Conservation Area.
Based on the above arguments, a conservation policy to be successful, it needs to involve all those responsible, from the policy formulators and the implementing agencies to the users. The Antiquities Act of as amended by the Antiquities Act of is the principal legal instrument for the protection and preservation of the historic centre. The Antiquities Division of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism is the central government lead agency for the conservation of the built heritage.
Ilala Municipal council is the overall planning and development authority in architectural conservation area. This legal and administrative regime is an opportunity not only for the conservation and development of the conservation area but in the implementation of the Plan. However, there are constraints and issues which need to be addressed and resolved. For effective management of the built heritage there is a need to address the competing interests of different stakeholders.
It has been revealed that development and conservation are two faces of the same coin. There cannot be conservation without local development because it is an activity that needs the use of social resources that cannot generate financial benefits in the short term. The impact of development on the conservation of the urban built heritage is partially determined by the urban management process and institutional framework.
However, there are impacts that are linked to structural development transformation that directly related to the weakness of the style of urban governance and urban management in Dar es Salaam. ArchiAfrika Newsletter.
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Birabi, Allan K. To apply for this course, you should have an undergraduate degree in any discipline relating to the built environment including architecture, engineering, surveying, planning, geography, archaeology, history or management. We will also consider your application if you have an undergraduate degree in other disciplines, such as history of art, and wish to gain a vocational degree.
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